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Senin, 03 Desember 2012

sport: Atletic

Athletics is a combination of several types of exercise can be broadly grouped into running, throwing and jumping. This word comes from the Greek word "athlon" meaning "contest". Athletics is a sport that diperlombakan the first Olympics in 776 BC. Parent organization for the sport of athletics in Indonesia is the PASI (Athletic Union All-Indonesia). 

HistoryAthletics was the original event at the first Olympics in 776 BC where the only event was a race run or Stade. There are several "Games" held throughout Europe in the classical era: Panhellenic Games The Pythian Games (started 6 BC) held in Argolid every two years. The Isthmian Games (starting 523 BC) held on the Isthmus of Corinth every two years. The Roman Games Derived from purely Greek roots, the Roman games deemphasized run and throw. Instead of chariot racing and wrestling, as in Greek, Etruscan sports wear galiatoral battle, which was equally 527 BC at Delphi held every four years. The Nemean Games (51 started using the stage). Other people fond of athletic contests, like the Celtic, Teutonic, and Goths who also favored the Romans. However, these were often associated with combat training. In the Middle Ages the son of a nobleman will be trained in running, fighting and wrestling and additional riding, archery and weapons training. Contests between rivals and friends are very common on both official and unofficial.In the 19th century the formal organization of the modern event begins. These include regular sports and exercise into school regimes. Royal Military College at Sandhurst was first claimed use in 1812 and 1825 but without any supporting evidence. The meeting was organized at Shrewsbury, Shropshire in 1840 by the Royal Shrewsbury School Hunt. No details of the meeting in a series of letters written 60 years later by CT Robinson who was a pupil there from 1838 to 1841. Eeck Military Academy at Woolwich held an organized competition in 1849, but the first regular series of meetings was held by Exeter College, Oxford from 1850.Modern athletic events are usually organized around a 400m running track in almost all events take place. Field events (jumping and throwing) often take place inside the track. Athletics was included in the first modern Olympic Games in 1896 and formed the basics then. Women first allowed to participate in track and field events in the Olympics in 1928. An international governing body, the IAAF was founded in 1912. The IAAF established separate outdoor World Championships in 1983. There are some regional games such as the European Championships, Pan-American Games and Commonwealth Games. In addition there are professional Golden League circuit, cumulating in the IAAF World Athletics Final and indoor championships such as the World Indoor Championships. The sport has a high profile during major championships, especially the Olympics, but otherwise is less popular. 
AAU (Amateur Athletic Union) is the governing body in the United States until it collapsed under the pressure of professionalism in the late 1970s. A new body called The Athletic Congress (TAC) was formed, and eventually was named USA Track and Field (USATF or USA T & F). An additional, more structured organization, the Road Runners Club of America (RRCA) also exists in the USA to promote road racing. In modern times, athletes can receive money for racing, ending called "amateurism" that existed before.Indoor track and field 
There are two seasons in track and field. There are indoor season, during the winter and an outdoor season, run during the spring and summer. Most indoor tracks are 200 meters and consists of four to six lanes. Often an indoor track will have banked turns to compensate for tight bends. In indoor track athletes competing in the same events with the exception of outdoor running and 110/100m 100m hurdles (replaced by sprint 60m and 60 m hurdles at most levels and sometimes the 55m sprint and 55m hurdles at the high school level) and ran 10,000 m, brisk 300m, and 400m hurdles. Indoor also got an additional 3,000 m run normally at both the collegiate and elite instead of the 10,000. 5,000 m marathon is an event run by far the most common, although there are situations where longer distances have been raced. In the mid-20th century, there is a race series duel at Madison Square Garden (New York) indoor track, some of which featured two men racing a marathon (26.2 miles). However, this is very rare. In certain circumstances, there is also a 500m race than 400 m normally found outdoors, and indoor collegiate championship both are contested.In the field events, indoor meets only feature the high jump, pole vault, long jump, triple jump and shot put. Sheet javelin, throwing an iron ball and shot put added only for outdoor, there is normally not enough room in an indoor stadium race. Events unique to indoor meets (especially in North America) are throwing a load weighing 300, 600, 1000 and 35 pounds. In some countries, notably Norway, standing long jump and standing high jump are also contested, even in the National Championship multi-event athletes there is the Pentathlon for women (consisting of 60m hurdles, long jump, shot put and 800m) and heptathlon for men (ie 60m hurdles, long jump, shot put, 60m run, pole vault and 1000m). For existing outdoor heptathlon for women and decathlonOutdoor track and fieldOutdoor track and field usually begins and ends in the spring. Most of the track is oval shaped for 400m state. However, some older tracks are 440 yardm where there are some tracks that are not oval and not due to geographical 400m/440 yard. Modern track with a rubberized surface, and older tracks made of dirt or gravel. Tracks normally consists of 6-10 lanes and include a lane with a ditch at one of the turns. This steeplechase pit outside or on the track, making for a tighter turn or wider. It is common that tracks will surround a playing field used for American football, soccer, or lacrosse. In this field are usually known in the field and a surface using artificial grass or carpet, and a place to hold a team diaman long camp during the tournament. However the javelin, hammer and discus ball usually contested off the field in another field because it requires a large amount of space, and its implementation may damage the infield on the track.EventThere are other variations besides the ones listed below, but races of unusual length (eg 300 m) are run much less often. The unusual races are typically held during indoor season because the indoor 200m track. With the exception of running miles, the race distance based empire rarely held at the track since most of the track was changed from a quarter mile (402.3 m) to 400 m. Almost all the royal record for distance is not held back. However, the IAAF record book still includes the mile world record (held by Hicham El Guerrouj of Morocco and Svetlana Masterkova of Russia for women) because of significant differences in the global. 
• Event-Running 400m event on the track running. 
a. Sprint: 400m event included. A common event is the 60m (indoors only), 100m, 200m and 400m. 
b. Medium range: from 800m to 3000m event, the 800m, 1500m, one mile and 3000m.i. Steeplechase - a race (usually 300m) which runners must negotiate barriers and water jumps. 
c. Long distance: runs over 5000 m. Usually the 5000 m and 10000 m. less common are 1, 6, 12, 24 hour race.d. Obstacle: 110 m high hurdles (100 m for women) and 400 m high hurdles (300 m in some high schools). 
e. Relay: 4 x 100m relay, 4 x 400 m relay, 4 x 200 m relay, 4 x 800 m relay, etc.. Some events, such as medley relays, are rarely run except at large relay carnivals.
• Run the streets: held on the open road, but usually end on the track. Unusual event is 5km, 10km, half-marathon and marathon
• fast road race event always is 10km, 20 km and 50 km. 
• Field Eventa. Event throwi. shot putii. shot putiii. javeliniv. discus throwingb. Event jumpi. high jumpii. pole vaultiii. long jumpiv. triple jumpc. very unusuali. standing high jumpii. standing long jumpiii. standing triple jump 
• Double Event or combinationa. Triathlon / Triathlonb. Pentathlon / pentathlonc. Heptathlond. Decathlon / decathlon

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