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Minggu, 04 November 2012


In business, it is necessary to do the planning. When a business gets started, then after determining that the product will be produced need to do business planning. For that needs to be prepared and do the calculations, among others:
• Initial Capital
• Investment
• Working Capital
• Determination of the Price
• Production Planning
To understand these things, the following described respectively as detailed manner, adapted from ILO: 2005, with adjustments made necessary by the author

A. Initial Capital
Initial capital required for the payment of the land, buildings, furniture and equipment, advertising and promotions prior to starting a business, purchasing machinery, provision of goods and in-ventaris, the cost of taking care of the certificates and business licenses, professional honoraria, and electricity and telephone. These expenditures can be grouped into two groups, namely capital investment and working capital.

1. Capital Investment
is the cost for the purchase of goods that are investing. There are goods which value / high cost and highly durable. Every effort should be pulled out of investment costs in order to operate. But the value could vary.
2. Working capital
Is the money needed for daily expenses to run the business.

B. Investment
The types of capital investments, is as follows:
1. Building a place of business, if known / posted punyai building plans as to what is needed, it can be obtained by:
a. Build;
b. Buying an existing building
c. Renting all or part of the building
d. Running a home business
2. Equipment, are all machines, tools, equipment, vehicles, office furniture, etc. that it takes to run a business.

C. Working capital
Working capital should be provided, it will be used for production and start a business until some time efforts have started to produce (products sold and can be used to continue the operation of the business). The expenses required are:
• Purchase of raw materials (eg textiles, yarn, accessories for the manufacture of clothing enterprises / convection) or finished goods) or goods (eg clothing, boutique or shop for business palaian)
• Promotion (banners, brochures, ads, etc.)
• Salaries of employees (if you need extra power, or will calculate the salary for yourself)
• Leases (equipment or buildings / places short term)
• Insurance and other fees Baiya

To open a business in vocational capital investment is usually not too much in-need, as land, buildings, furniture and equipment baisanya been owned by the school. While working capital should still be removed, which is to buy materials to produce.
Vocational students or graduates can also operate a business without the cost of investment while in tow. Examples of business ideas in an enclosed-2, is the idea that businesses can be started with a small capital, equipment simple and in accordance with their respective areas of interest. However, knowledge of the planning of this operation is still needed.

D. Production Planning
In production planning, calculations need to be made about the strength of the product in attracting buyers. Also needs to be considered available resources. How much working capital available, how kepasitas equipment, how much power and ability ja ker-production (linked to competencies and work hours), as well as how much and how long the supply of raw materials can be obtained.

E. Price fixing
After learning the necessary capital, it must be pricing the products or services offered. Simply put, the count before working capital incurred to produce how much of the product, and then divide the amount of capital with a great product, it can be seen per-unit prices.
In order to establish the right price, it's better to do the comparison with his competitors' prices and additional services they provide. Keep mena-warkan cheaper prices than competitors but with more added value.
In determining this price, there are two main methods are:
1. Mark-up pricing method, which add up the cost of production and added profit percentage on the price of production so that it becomes the selling price.
2. Competitive pricing method, using a benchmark set prices competitively priced competitors.

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